Notas
Print Maximize Close

Preguntas más frecuentes (FAQ)


Si requiere la definición de una palabra o expresión que encontró en Trade Map, por favor refiérase al glosario.
Las preguntas de la página de Trade Map que aún no han sido traducidas aparecerán en inglés.


LAS PREGUNTAS




LAS RESPUESTAS

  • INFORMACIÓN GENERAL

    • ¿En qué unidades se reportan las cantidades en Trade Map?


      La unidad de cantidad más usada en Trade Map es la tonelada métrica (1,000 kilogramos (kg), i.e. alrededor de 2,204.6 libras (lb)). Unos pocos productos, como electricidad, por naturaleza no pueden ser expresados en toneladas. Algunos países no siempre reportan sus cantidades en peso (kilogramos o toneladas). Es por ello que Trade Map ofrece las siguientes unidades:
      • Kilómetros
      • Miles de metros cuadrados
      • Metros cúbicos
      • Megawatt por hora
      • Unidades
      • Pares
      • Docenas
      • Miles de unidades
      • Millón de unidades
      • Numero de paquetes
      • Quilates
      Para analizar el comercio internacional de una mejor manera, además del peso, algunos países reportan una segunda unidad de cantidad. En este caso, cantidades expresadas en la segunda unidad pueden ser encontradas en Trade Map al seleccionar la tabla de “Series Temporales” mostrando “Cantidades” no expresadas en "Unidades Primarias,” pero en su lugar en “Unidades Suplementarias."





    • ¿Dónde puedo encontrar estadísticas por Puerto de entrada, o por modo de transporte?


      Estadísticas de comercio internacional por Puerto de entrada y modo de transporte no están disponibles en Trade Map. Esta información está disponible en línea para algunos países, no obstante el acceso a esta información es pagado. Recomendamos contactar los servicios de aduanas de los países de donde se desea extraer la información.




    • ¿Dónde puedo encontrar análisis de comercio internacional?


      Análisis de comercio internacional y otros documentos de investigación están disponibles en el sitio web del Centro de Comercio Internacional (ITC) website: www.intracen.org
      Análisis recientes disponibles en la página de "Market analysis studies" page.
      Estudios por sectores están también disponibles.
      También existe un catálogo de las publicaciones del ITC en nuestra biblioteca electrónica.





    • ¿Dónde puedo encontrar estadísticas de comercio internacional antes del año 2001?


      Trade Map provee estadísticas de comercio internacional desde el año 2001. Estadísticas de comercio internacional antes del año 2001, están disponibles en el sitio de UN Comtrade.




    • ¿Cómo puedo descargar datos de Trade Map?


      Los datos pueden ser descargados de cualquier tabla mostrada en Trade Map. Para descargar una tabla debes de dar un click en el icono de forma de diskette que aparece en la parte superior de la tabla. El mismo procedimiento aplica para descargar un gráfico o mapa mostrado en la pantalla. No obstante, existen restricciones para descargar grandes volúmenes de datos (por ejemplo, todos los datos de comercio de un país, para todos sus productos y socios comerciales). Es posible descargar grandes volúmenes de datos desde el sitio UN Comtrade.
      Estando consiente de la necesidad de algunos usuarios de poder accesar a los datos de Trade Map fuera de línea, el ITC produce cada ano un CD-ROM llamado PC-TAS que contiene los datos de comercio internacional de los cinco años anteriores. Para mas información, por favor dirigirse a: http://www.intracen.org/itc/market-data/trade-analysis-system-on-pc/





    • ¿He encontrado información acerca del valor de exportación/importación pero no las cantidades, porque?


      Muchas razones pueden explicar este problema:
      • Al nivel de 2 dígitos del Sistema Armonizado (SA) cantidades no estan disponibles en la base de datos del UN Comtrade que es una de las fuentes principales de datos de Trade Map.
      • Si la cantidad de unidades es “Mezclada,” esto significa que el pais que reporta estos datos ha usado muchas unidades para expresar las cantidades. Puede ser útil ver los datos detallados por país socio, a un nivel de detalle más preciso del producto o series mensuales.
      • Un país puede muchas veces reportar el valor de su comercio sin reportar cantidades. EN este caso Trade Map reporta “No Quantity”.
      • Cantidades Mostradas en Trade Map son redondeadas a la unidad más cercana. Por ejemplo, 2.1 toneladas son mostradas como 2 toneladas. Consecuentemente, cantidades iguales a 0 pueden ser encontradas cuando las cantidades son iguales o menores que 0.5. Particularmente esto se da cuando el valor del comercio es bajo (i.e., menos de 10,000 dólares americanos). En este caso, puede ser de mucha ayuda ver a las cantidades expresadas en unidades suplementarias.
      • Si un valor de comercio es igual a 0, la cantidad correspondiente es sistemáticamente 0 igualmente.





    • ¿Dónde puedo encontrar otras bases de datos con estadísticas de comercio internacional?


      Otras estadísticas de comercio internacional pueden ser encontradas en los siguientes sitios:
      UN Comtrade: comtrade.un.org/
      Eurostat: epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
      World Trade Atlas: www.gtis.com
      United States International Trade Commission: www.usitc.gov
      Integrated Trade Intelligence Portal (Organización Mundial del Comercio): http://i-tip.wto.org
      FAO Stat: http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/home/F
      World Bank WITS: http://wits.worldbank.org/





  • METODOLOGÍA

    • ¿Cuáles son las fuentes de datos de Trade Map?


      Las series anuales en Trade Map para productos a niveles 2, 4, y 6 digitos del sistema armonizado están basados en el UN Comtrade, la base de datos más grande de estadísticas de comercio internacional, cuyo mantenimiento es hecho por la división de estadísticas de las Naciones Unidas (UNSD). Estos datos son complementados por fuentes nacionales cuando la información no está disponible. Para los datos de frecuencias trimestrales y mensuales las fuentes son instituciones nacionales o regionales. Notas de pie de página muestran la fuente de los datos en las tablas de Trade Map. Datos están también disponibles para países que no reportan sus estadísticas de comercio internacional. El comercio de estos países es reconstruido a partir de los datos reportados por los países socios. Estos datos son llamados estadísticas espejo (Ver también el glosario acerca estadísticas espejo).




    • ¿Cuando se actualiza la base de datos de Trade Map?


      Tipo de datos Actualización
      Datos anuales a nivel de 6 dígitos del SA Todo el año, a medida que recibamos los datos
      Datos anuales a nivel de línea arancelaria Todo el año, a medida que recibamos los datos
      Datos mensuales y trimestrales Todo el año, a medida que recibamos los datos
      Indicadores (Tendencias) Cuatro veces al año (enero / abril / julio / octubre)
      Comercio de servicios Una vez al año (febrero-marzo)
      Aranceles Tres veces al año





    • ¿Por qué hay una diferencia entre el valor de las exportacines declarado por un país y los datos correspondientes espejo de su país socio?


      Las estadísticas de exportación raramente se alinean exactamente con las estadísticas de importación de los países socios.

      Más de 30 razones han sido identificadas. Las razones principales son:
      • Sistema de comercio: Algunos países utilizan el sistema de comercio especial (que excluye el comercio realizado en las zonas francas), mientras algunos otros utilizan el sistema de comercio general (que incluye las zonas francas).
      • Medición de cantidad: Algunos países reportan pesos brutos y algunos otros reportan pesos netos.
      • Lapso de tiempo: Algunas discrepancias se podrían producir, si las exportaciones están registradas en un año y las importaciones en el año siguiente. Grandes discrepancias debidas al tiempo de retraso afectan a menudo el comercio de los buques, ya que esto implica altos costos y algunos años pueden transcurrir entre el registro de las exportaciones y las importaciones.
      • Errónea distribución de un país socio o de un producto se puede producir en lo que un país reporta. Esto sólo afecta a los intercambios bilaterales o, a los niveles de producto detallado respectivamente, pero no al comercio global.
      • País de confidencialidad (registrado como "Zona NEP", ver FAQ 1.h) pueden tener un impacto directo sobre las discrepancias en general, si el valor de ese flujo está publicado en el comercio total, pero no está desglosado por paises socios. La confidencialidad del producto afecta a los resultados de los niveles detallos de la nomenclatura de los productos, pero no tienen ningún impacto, sin embargo, en las estadísticas generales de los intercambios comerciales.
      • Reexportaciones (ver glosario) o el tránsito pueden ser tenidos en cuenta por algunos países. La recomendación de las Naciones Unidas dice, entre otras cosas, que:
        • las estadísticas de importaciónes deberían ser recopilada por el país de origen (Recomendación 8.02),
        • las estadísticas de exportaciónes deberían ser elaboradas por el último destino conocido (Recomendación 8.09),
        • los bienes en tránsito deberían ser excluidos de las estadísticas de comercio (Recomendación 13.04). Sin embargo, el país exportador no siempre conoce el destino final del producto. Además, el país de origen no es ni el país que ha reexportado el producto ni el país en el que el producto ha transitado;
      • Transporte y gastos de seguro estan incluidos en el valor de las importaciones reportadas (CIF: Costo, Seguro de carga), pero se excluyen del valor de las exportaciones reportadas (FOB: "Free On Board", Libre a bordo).


      FOB: Un término de comercio (Incoterm) que significa Libre a Bordo (puerto de embarque). Véase www.iccwbo.org/incoterms/id3038/index.html para obtener más detalles .
      CIF: Un término de comercio (Incoterm) que significa Costo, Seguro y Flete (puerto de destino). Véase www.iccwbo.org/incoterms/id3038/index.html para obtener más detalles.
      De acuerdo con las normas internacionales, las exportaciones se valoran FOB y las importaciones se valoran CIF. Algunos países, sin embargo, no siguen este sistema. Para mayor información véase la página web de COMTRADE. comtrade.un.org/db/mr/daExpNoteDetail.aspx?nom=-30.
      Además, por lo que sabemos, no hay modelos para la conversión de los valores FOB en CIF y viceversa.

      Todas estas razones se refieren a la metodología que cada país utiliza en la compilación de los datos. Las Naciones Unidas han hecho recomendaciones en Estadísticas del Comercio Internacional de bienes: Conceptos y Definiciones or the Manual para compiladores. Para saber en qué medida un país en particular cumple con las recomendaciones de las Naciones Unidas, por favor visite el Prácticas Nacionales de Compilación y Diseminación de las estadísticas de comercio internacional de bienes de la página web de la UNSD.





    • ¿Cómo han sido calculados los indicadores de la tendencia de crecimiento de los ultimos 5 años en Trade Map?


      Los indicadores de la evolución del crecimiento basados en los últimos 5 años, disponibles en Trade Map, se calculan utilizando el método de la tendencia de los mínimos cuadrados logarítmicos, en serie de valores expresados en los actuales dólares de los EE.UU. Estos indicadores están actualizados cuatro veces al año (enero, abril, julio, octubre). La primera actualización con datos del año anterior se lleva a cabo en abril.

      Si un país no reporta datos comerciales en el último año, el cálculo de la tendencia se basa en las estadísticas espejo.

      Ninguna tendencia es calculada si los datos reportados por el país no están disponibles por un período de cuatro años minimo.

      La tendencia de mínimos cuadrados es un indicador de crecimiento de uso común. Tiene las siguientes ventajas:
      • tiene en cuenta cada una de las observaciones en cuestión, a diferencia de las tasas de crecimiento geométrica (o compuesta), que sólo tienen en cuenta la primera y la última observación;
      • mide la estabilidad del crecimiento observado (información no incluida en Trade Map).

      Por otro lado, la tendencia de los mínimos cuadrados es muy sensible a los valores extremos valores (o periféricos). Estos valores pueden distorsionar los resultados de manera significativa. Los valores extremos que no están relacionados con el proceso de crecimiento en estudio deberían ser excluidos.





    • ¿Cuál es la diferencia entre los indicadores de comercio y los datos de series de tiempo?


      Lor indicadores comerciales están disponibles para el último año cuando los países que nos reportan sus datos representan al menos el 80% del mundo. Estos indicadores son calculados de antemano y por lo tanto, es posible que hayan en una misma tabla los indicadores del rendimiento del país, del rendimiento de los países socios y de la tendencia mundial (por ejemplo, las tendencias de crecimiento en valor y volumen en los últimos 5 años y en los últimos 2 años, la balanza comercial de un país, la cuota de mercado del país en las exportaciones o importaciones mundiales, la cuota de mercado de un país socio en las exportaciones o importaciones del país en cuestión).

      Los indicadores comerciales se basan en los productos clasificados de acuerdo al Sistema Armonisado (SA), revisión 4 de 2012. Algunos códigos de los productos han sido creados de nuevo, eliminados o recolocados en la revisión 4 del SA y por lo tanto el análisis de tales códigos de productos debería ser abordado con cautela. Una tabla correspondiente a los productos que han cambiado durante las revisiones del SA está disponible en Trade Map, en "Documentos de referencia".

      Las series de tiempo muestran datos de varios años (si desea ver para cuantos años, vaya al menú desplegable en la parte superior de la pantalla: Documentos de referencia - Disponibilidad de datos). La tabla puede mostrar los datos según los valores y las cuantidades. También es posible calcular en línea las tasas de crecimiento en valor o en cantidad, las cuotas, los valores unitarios, las tasas de crecimiento de los valores unitarios e índices en valores, las cantidades o los valores unitarios. Los datos son proporcionados por año, por trimestre o por mes. La selección se puede hacer desde el menú de navegación que se encuentra arriba de la tabla.

      La última revisión del SA, reportada por el país para un año determinado es la que utilizámos para las series de tiempo. Puede leer más sobre esto en FAQ 2.g.

      Los datos de las series de tiempo permiten afinar el análisis llevado a cabo, después de tomar en cuenta los indicadores del comercio. Las fluctuaciones en los datos entre un año y el otro pueden ser grandes y no necesariamente se reflejan en la tendencia de crecimiento anual que aparece en la tabla con los indicadores del comercio.

      Los datos mensuales pueden ayudar al usuario a identificar los modelos estacionales y el impacto sobre los flujos comerciales de los eventos nacionales o internacionales como la devaluación de la moneda o una crisis económica y financiera.





    • ¿Qué tipos de cambios son aplicados?


      Los datos anuales que recibimos de COMTRADE son en dólares estadounidenses. En general, los países nos reportan los datos trimestrales y mensuales en moneda local. El tipo de cambio utilizado para convertir estas monedas locales en dólares estadounidenses es una media aritmética simple de las tasas diarias interbancarias, suministradas por http://fxtop.com.

      Para obtenir los datos en diferentes monedas en Trade Map, el tipo de cambio aplicado es una media aritmética simple de las tasas diarias interbancarias, suministradas por http://fxtop.com.





    • ¿En cuál revisión del SA son proporcionados los datos de Trade Map?


      La revisión del SA de 2012 es utilizada para los indicadores del comercio.
      Para todos los datos de series de tiempo, la revisión utilizada es la revisión más reciente reportada por el país para un año determinado. Esta información está disponible en la base de datos UN Comtrade, de la División de Estadística de las Naciones Unidas http://comtrade.un.org. Vaya a "Metadata and Reference", luego "Country list". Al lado de cada país, haga clic en el enlace "Data availability"; los años en gris son los datos reportados. Los años en azul son los datos convertidos).





    • ¿Por qué China es un país socio en las importaciónes de China?


      La existencia de importaciones chinas procedentes de China se explica parcialmente por simple reimportación. Por favor, consulte el glosario acerca de la reimportación. La parte más importante está relacionada con el comercio de procesamiento. Más del 90% de las importaciones chinas procedentes de China son fabricadas en China, exportadas a Hong Kong y luego reimportada en China. 73% de los productos reimportados se utilizan como materiales de proceso que llegan desde el exranjero, y el 70% son importados por la región de Guangdong. Las principales razones que explican este comercio son las conveniencia geográfica y logística de Guangdong con Hong Kong. Las mercancías que entran por el comercio de procesamiento están exentas de derechos de importación. La gestión empresarial de las empresas multinacionales y sus centros de distribución se basan a menudo en Hong Kong.




    • ¿Qué deben tener en cuenta los usuarios cuando utilizan las estadísticas de comercio exterior como una base para la investigación estratégica de mercado?


      Las estadísticas de comercio exterior proporcionan un cuadro diferenciado de los flujos comerciales entre los países. Ellas toman en cuenta la cobertura de productos (más de 5,300 productos en el marco del Sistema Armonizado), la cobertura geográfica (alrededor de 220 países y territorios; datos directos y datos de espejo representan el 97% del comercio mundial) y series de tiempo (datos del Sistema Armonizado están disponibles en Trade Map desde 1988). Además, están disponibles a un costo moderado. Esto hace que sean una fuente atractiva para la investigación del mercado y la evaluación de los resultados comerciales.

      En este contexto, el ITC ha desarrollado una serie de herramientas para la comercialización internacional y la promoción del comercio basadas en las estadísticas comerciales. Trade Competitiveness Map (anteriormente conocido como Country Map), Trade Map, Market Access Map, Investment Map y Standards Map son todos ejemplos de ello. Todas estas herramientas se esfuerzan para presentar las estadísticas del comercio en un formato analitico y de fácil manejar.

      A pesar del atractivo de esta fuente de información, los usuarios deberían tener en cuenta los siguientes puntos débiles de las estadísticas de comercio exterior:
      • Los datos comerciales nunca son completos: el contrabando y la falta de informes, representan un grave problema en varios países. Además, las estadísticas del comercio, como cualquier otra fuente de información, no están libres de errores y omisiones.
      • La mayoría de los países integran las reimportaciones en sus estadísticas de importaciones y las reexportaciones en sus estadísticas de exportación. Un país de bajos ingresos puede aparecer como un exportador de aviones simplemente porque su aerolínea nacional ha vendido aviones de segunda mano.
      • El valor de la exportación se refiere al valor total o al valor del negocio. De acuerdo a los convenios internacionales, por informar de las estadísticas del comercio, el valor de las exportaciones se refiere al valor total o del negocio, que pueden, por supuesto, ser muy diferentes del valor añadido local. Para muchas de las actividades de procesamiento el valor añadido local se mantiene por debajo del 20% del valor de las exportaciones.
      • Diferentes productos se clasifican de manera diferente. Tambien al nivel más detallado de clasificación de los productos, grupos de productos en las nomenclaturas comerciales no reflejan necesariamente los nombres comerciales y a menudo contienen una amplia gama de productos diferentes. Por ejemplo, ningún país tiene códigos arancelarios para los productos organicos. Por otra parte, la nomenclatura de los productos puede ser a veces engañosa. Las etiquetas de los grupos de productos agregados a menudo son muy generales y a veces proporcionan una indicación limitada en cuanto a los elementos principales que se encuentran dentro del grupo de productos en cuestión.
      • Las fluctuaciones de las tasas de cambio no siempre están debidamente registradas en las estadísticas del comercio internacional. Los valores son agregados normalmente durante el período de un año en moneda nacional y convertidos a dólares de EE.UU. En Trade Map, los datos mensuales del comercio le ayudará a analizar mejor las fluctuaciones del las tasas de cambio.
      • A veces se utilizan las estadísticas espejo. Para los países que no reportan los datos comerciales a las Naciones Unidas, el ITC utiliza los datos de los países socios: un enfoque conocido como las estadísticas espejo. Mayor información acerca de las estadísticas espejo en el glosario.





  • NAVEGACIÓN Y USO DE TRADE MAP

    • How can I create an account to use Trade Map?


      You can either register on ITC’s web site www.intracen.org/marketanalysis or at mas-admintools.intracen.org/accounts/Registration.aspx

      Users located in developing countries can have a free and full access to ITC’s Market Analysis Tools Trade Map, Market Access Map, Investment Map, Standards Map and Procurement Map. Users located developed countries can access most information for free or subscribe to get full access. Subscription options and fees are available at legacy.intracen.org/marketanalysis/OptionsFees.aspx





    • I have created an account but I cannot access Trade Map.


      The reasons for this can be the following:
      • You received an email from ITC asking you to confirm your email address by clicking on a link but you did not confirm. Hence, your account has not been activated. Please validate your account before contacting us at marketanalysis@intracen.org.
      • You did not receive any confirmation email. Please check this email is not in your SPAM box. If after one or two days you still did not receive a message please contact our users support service at marketanalysis@intracen.org
      • Your password is case sensitive. Please type it the same way you created it (lower case letters or capital letters).
      If you still cannot access Trade Map, please send us the following information at marketanalysis@intracen.org:
      • URL you used to log in
      • Username
      • Error message (if any)
      • Screenshot
      • Query you did
      • Browser used





    • How can I identify my product in the Harmonized System nomenclature?


      In the selection menu, the first drop-down list is where you can select your product. Type a keyword in this list to find your product. You can also type the 2, 4 or 6-digit code of your product if you know it.
      You can also use the "Advanced Search" module, in which a product can easily be found by using keywords or by browsing the Harmonized System nomenclature in the "Search by Hierarchy" tab.
      To learn more about this, please read the paragraph 2.2 of the user guide.





    • How can I find trade data at the tariff line level?


      When you select a product without having selected any country and submit the request (either with Trade Indicators or Time Series), you get a list of countries importing or exporting this product. You then need to click on the '+' sign to access data at a more disaggregated level. If the product code selected in the selection menu was at the 4 digit level, by clicking on the '+' sign, you will go to the 6 digit level and by clicking again on the '+' sign, you will reach the tariff line level. You can also click on the pull-down menu available in the navigation bar and select "product cluster at 10-digit"

      An alternative way to get tariff line level data is to click on the product code in the navigation bar.

      Additionally, you can click on the link 'Advanced search' in the selection menu: you then need to put one or more keywords, select ‘tariff line level’ and submit your query by clicking on 'Search'.





    • I entered a 6-digit product code in the selection menu and I cannot select the "Trade Indicators" button. Why?


      This is because the product code you selected does not exist in 2012 revision of the Harmonized System (HS). The product code in question might have been created during one of the previous revisions and then removed in the 2012 HS revision.
      When you type a product code or a keyword in the selection menu, do not forget to select the product proposed by Trade Map otherwise the buttons at the bottom of the page will not be activated.





    • How can I find data over several years when the product code has changed because of a revision of the Harmonized System?


      You need to find the corresponding codes in the other revisions of the Harmonized System (HS). To do so please go to the Correspondence table for product codes.

      For instance, if you select the imports of the product 010121 (Live horses : Pure-bred breeding animals), the table you arrive at indicates that the product code selected has been created in the 2012 HS revision. So the countries that are displayed are the ones that reported their trade for this product in the 2012 revision.

      By going to the "Reference Material" section in the "Correspondence table for product codes", you will see that in the 1996, 2002 or 2007 HS revision, you had three codes corresponding to 010121: 010110 (Pure-bred breeding horses and asses), 010111 (Horses, live pure-bred breeding) and 010120 (Asses, mules and hinnies, live).

      You can see this as well by staying in the table of imports of 010121 in time series and switching in the navigation bar to "by product" (instead of "by country") and switching to "Corresponding code with different revisions". The three product codes 010110, 010111 and 010120 will appear. By clicking on each respective product code, you will have the list of importing countries in time series.
      On the occasion of a revision, several product codes can be reallocated to a single product or, on the contrary, one product code can be reallocated to several product codes. Consequently it is not always possible to rebuild a precise time series when a product has been affected by a Harmonized System revision.





    • How can I create my own group of countries or my own group of products?


      If you are registered you can create your own groups of countries and your own groups of products from the "My Account" menu. Detailed explanations on how to create groups can be found in the user guide in paragraphs 2.2.1.3 and 2.2.2.2.
      You can create as many product groups and country groups as you want.
      Each group of products can contain a maximum of 100 products. All products within a group must have the same level of detail, i.e. the same number of digits in their code (2-digit or 4-digit or 6-digit product codes but no mix allowed).





    • How can I learn more on using Trade Map?


      Some videos about the navigation in Trade Map and the interpretation of figures are available on the Distance Learning Support page accessible from the Market analysis tools portal: www.intracen.org/marketanalysis/DistanceLearning.aspx.

      A user guide is also available: www.trademap.org/Docs/TradeMap-Userguide-EN.pdf.





  • COMPANY DATA

    • What is the coverage of company data?


      Company data cover most products for more than 133 countries. Companies you will find in Trade Map are those registered as importing or exporting companies in our sources, Kompass International and Dun and Bradstreet. As registration in the Kompass International database is done on a voluntary basis, the coverage of companies is therefore not comprehensive.
      To know which countries are covered and what kind of data is available, please visite the Trade Map company data availability page.





    • Which nomenclature is used in the Trade Map company data module?


      The product nomenclature depends on the company data provider. For companies information provided by Kompass the products traded by companies are recorded in a nomenclature defined by Kompass International. For companies information provided by Dun and Bradstreet, the products are recorded in the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). We use a correspondence table between the Harmonized System (HS) nomenclature and the Kompass or SIC nomenclatures. Therefore, when entering the "Companies" module, you first obtain a list of products coming from the Kompass International or SIC nomenclatures.




    • Where can I find international trade data for a particular company?


      Data from the "Companies" Trade Map module, in particular the list of products traded by a particular company, are available from the selection menu (by clicking on the "Companies" button) or from a table (by clicking on the "Companies" tab). Please note that to activate the "Companies" button you must select at least one product, and one product only (do not select a group of products).

      Trade Map does not contain data that allows to identify the trade of a particular company (for instance with the exported value, the destination, etc.). Such data is only available from national specialized services (e.g. customs), under very limited conditions and for research purposes only. A few sites (Panjiva, Datamyne, etc.) offer more detailed information by company for a fee.





    • Can I add data about my company in Trade Map?


      At the moment it is not possible to add in Trade Map company data on an individual basis. We advise you to contact the official trade promotion organization in your country so that it submits your data to Trade Map.




    • I cannot access company data. Why?


      Mainly two reasons can explain this.
      • You are using the "light" version of Trade Map (a green header indicates this at the top of your screen) or you are using a restricted access account (developed countries only). We strongly encourage you to subscribe to Trade Map and the other ITC market analysis tools. Subscription is free for all users from developing countries. For users from developed countries, please see the subscription options and fees.
      • You did not select a product or you selected a product and/or a country for which no company data is available. In this case, instead of displaying a blank screen, Trade Map prevents the access to the "Companies" module. Please note that the "Companies" module is not accessible when you use product groups or country groups.





  • TRADE IN SERVICES

    • Which trade in services statistics are covered by Trade Map?


      International trade in services in Trade Map refers solely to services transactions between residents and non-residents, as collected according to the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (BPM, see FAQ 5.b).

      Services transactions in the balance of payments broadly correspond to cross-border trade (Mode 1, as defined in the General Agreement on Trade in Services - GATS), one of the four different modes through which services are supplied worldwide (see FAQ 5.e). However, and contrary to trade in goods, services often ask for "proximity" between the consumer and the supplier.
      Therefore, the balance of payments, and consequently Trade Map, presents also trade in services data referring to consumption abroad (Mode2), commercial presence (Mode 3) and the delivery of services by foreign workers (known as movement of natural persons, Mode 4) as long as the resident to non-resident rule is applied.
      In the particular case of commercial presence, only the construction sector is covered by the Balance of Payment, while services provided by foreign workers are only recorded as part of a transaction involving other modes of supply.

      A benchmark definition of the term "residence" is provided by the Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services (MSITS, see FAQ 5.f), based on the concept of "economic territory" (MSITS 2002, para. 3.4) and "centre of economic interest" (MSITS 2002, para. 3.5).
      In general, a period of one-year in a foreign country is suggested as the minimum duration to determine residence, but this rule may be flexible.





    • Which nomenclature is used for the classification of trade in services statistics on Trade Map?


      Trade in services statistics on Trade Map are classified according to the framework set by the 6th edition of the Balance of Payment Manual (BPM6) and the Extended Balance of Payment on Services classification released in 2010 (EBOPS 2010).
      All definitions adopted by Trade Map for main sector categories and sub-categories derive from the BPM6 and the 2010 edition of Manual on International Trade Statistics (MSITS 2010).

      The Balance of Payments Manual (BPM)
      Historically the IMF has been in charge of standardizing on methods of accountancy for the Balance Of Payments (BOP). Most countries recorded services data according to the 5h edition of the Balance of Payments Manual (BPM5) released in 1993. BPM5 grouped services into 11 main categories.
      Trade Map data used to refer to this 5th edition of the Manual. The 6th edition of the Balance of Payments Manual (BPM6) has been published in 2009. In 2011, only Australia officially released data according to the BPM6 methodology. In 2015, more countries reported according to the BPM6 methodology. Besides the World Trade Organization (WTO) established a procedure to estimate BPM6 data. Therein, services are aggregated into 12 main categories split into several hierarchical levels: 2 new categories have been introduced ('Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others' and 'Maintenance and repair services'), Merchanting is now excluded from trade in services statistics and 'Communication services' and 'Computer and information services' have been merged into 1 category ('Telecommunications, computer and information services'). Other changes have also occurred in the allocation of detailed components in other sectors as well as different nomenclatures for services sectors have been applied (for more information see FAQ 5.j).

      The Extended Balance of Payments for Services (EBOPS)
      The Extended Balance of Payment for Services (EBOPS) represents a detailed segmentation, provided by the MSITS 2010, of the broad service categories identified within the BMP6 framework, defined as EBOPS 2010.
      Trade Map data for services detailed categories used to refer to the 2002 edition of the EBOPS classification (built on the BPM5 framework). It now refers to the EBOPS 2010 classification (built on the BPM6 framework). The definitions of its components are provided by the MSITS 2010.

      Related links & documents
      BPM5 - Balance of Payments Manual, fifth edition (Washington, D.C: IMF, 1993). The text can be found on the IMF's website: www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/bopman/bopman.pdf
      BPM6 - Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (Washington, D.C: IMF, 2009). The text can be found on the IMF's website: www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/bop/2007/pdf/BPM6.pdf

      EBOPS 2002 (link to MSITS 2002, Annex II):unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/Seriesm/Seriesm_86e.pdf
      EBOPS 2010 (link to MSITS 2010, Annex I):unstats.un.org/unsd/tradeserv/TFSITS/msits2010/docs/MSITS 2010 M86 (E) web.pdf

      MSITS 2002, MSITS 2010 in the 6 official languages of the United Nations and online annexes of the Manual: unstats.un.org/unsd/tradeserv/TFSITS/manual.htm





    • What is the data-collection system for services transactions included in the balance of payments?


      Trade Map provides data collected within the balance of payments and, specifically, statistics referring to residents to non-residents transactions (see FAQ 5.a).
      This data can be retrieved by domestic banks and/or national statistic offices from one or more of the following sources:
      • International Transaction Reporting System (ITRS). In this case, international payments channelled through domestic banks are collected, generally, under the responsibility of the national central bank. Payments are used as a proxy of transactions.
      • Enterprise surveys. Generally, under the responsibility of the national statistic office.
      • Other complementary sources. It could be necessary to draw on supplementary data from migration, tourism, multinational companies (MNC) and labour market statistics, in order to provide detailed figures for Travel and Government services n.i.e. A typical area of interest for international trade in services relates to the data that may be maintained by governments on education and health services provided to or by non-residents (travel; personal, cultural and recreational services). Information obtained from partner countries is useful in order to validate and improve statistics of the compiling economy. Data from international organizations can be useful for aid recipient countries to compile data on technical assistance services.

      Related links & documents
      WTO (2010), Measuring Trade in Services- A training module (Chapter V): www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/services_training_module_e.htm





    • What are the conventions applied to separate the value of goods from the cost of freights included in Transportation services?


      The cost for freight represents a controversial item that stands on the edge between Goods and Services trade. As many merchandised products include in their prices the value of freight services, it is worthwhile to clarify when freights expenses have to be considered as services in the BOP and when they do not.

      The following examples refer to the 6th edition of the IMF Balance of Payments Manual (BPM6, chapter 10, p. 165).
      A piece of equipment costs 10,000 units at the factory at which it was produced in Economy A. It costs 200 to transport it to the customs frontier of Economy A, 300 to transport it from the customs frontier of Economy A to the customs frontier of Economy B, where a customs duty of 50 is levied, and it costs 100 to deliver it from the customs frontier to the customer. (For simplicity, insurance of the equipment during transport is not covered in the example.)
      Under all contractual arrangements between the parties, the FOB value is 10,200 and the CIF value is 10,500. However, how the services are recorded depends on the arrangements for paying the transport costs and the residence of the transport provider. A few of the possible arrangements are discussed below:
      Example 1:
      The parties contract on an FOB basis (i.e., the invoice price is 10,200; the exporter is responsible for costs up to the frontier of A and the importer is responsible for subsequent costs). In this case, no rerouting needed. All freight is shown as being provided by the actual provider and payable by the actual invoiced party.
      Example 2:
      The parties contract on an “ex works” basis (i.e., the invoice price is 10,000; the buyer pays for transport from the seller’s premises).
      • The freight from the factory to the customs frontier of Economy A is provided by a resident of Economy A. The 200 payable, which is actually a service provided by a resident of Economy A and payable by a resident of Economy B, must be rerouted to be shown as a resident-to-resident transaction within A, as all costs up to the frontier of the exporting economy are treated as being payable by the exporter and included in the price of the goods.
      • The freight from the factory to the customs frontier of Economy A is provided by a resident of Economy B. The 200 payable, which is actually a domestic service transaction within Economy B, must be rerouted as being a service provided from B to A, as all costs up to the frontier of the exporting economy are treated as being payable by the exporter.

      Example 3:
      The parties contract on a CIF basis (i.e., the invoice price is 10,500). The 300 payable for freight from the customs frontier of Economy A to that of Economy B is rerouted, because the contract makes it payable by the exporter, but it is treated as payable by the importer in balance of payments statistics (i.e., following FOB valuation).As a result, if the freight provider is a resident of A, a domestic transaction within A is treated as being a balance of payments transaction. Conversely, if the freight provider is a resident of B, an international transaction is treated as being a domestic transaction within B.
      It is not normally possible to study every contract, so general patterns of freight cost arrangements need to be identified. When contract terms other than FOB are used, actual payment arrangements for freight may need adjustments to meet the FOB valuation convention.
      In all cases where apparently domestic transactions are rerouted to be recorded as international transactions, or vice versa, goods trade must be recorded on a consistent basis, so that the financial payment from B to A equals the sum of its goods and services imports, both before and after re-routing adjustments. (If the goods are recorded at FOB values, the adjustments to freight bring them into consistency with goods; if the goods are recorded at transaction values, the goods values need corresponding adjustments.) Rentals, charters, or operating leases of vessels, aircraft, freight cars, or other commercial vehicles with crews for the carriage of freight are included in freight services. Also included are towing and services related to the transport of oil platforms, floating cranes, and dredges. Financial leases of transport equipment are excluded from transport services (see paragraphs 5.56–5.59 and 10.17(f)).





    • What are the different Modes of supply included in Trade Map services statistics?


      Since services are not storable and have to be instantaneously consumed by the purchaser, the location of the supplier (consumer) in respect to the consumer (supplier) is a crucial feature of services trade. This led to the division of services flows by modes of supply. In particular, the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), entered into force in 1995, identifies four modes of supply for the delivery of services:

      Mode 1: Cross-border
      A user in country A receives services from abroad through its telecommunications or postal infrastructure. Such supplies may include consultancy or market research reports, tele-medical advice, distance training, or architectural drawings.
      Statistical coverage:
      Trade Map covers Mode 1 through the balance of payments collection: transportation (most of), communications services, insurance services, financial services, royalties and license fees. Part of: computer and information services, other business services, and personal, cultural, and recreational services

      Mode 2: Consumption abroad
      Nationals of country A have moved abroad as tourists, students, or patients to consume the respective services.
      Statistical coverage:
      Trade Map covers Mode 2 through the balance of payments collection: travel (excluding goods bought by travellers); repairs to carriers in foreign ports (goods); part of transportation (supporting and auxiliary services to carriers in foreign ports)

      Mode 3: Commercial presence
      The service is provided within country A by a locally-established affiliate, subsidiary, or representative office of a foreign-owned and — controlled company (e.g.: bank, hotel group, construction company, etc.).
      Statistical coverage:
      • Trade Map covers Mode 3 through the balance of payments collection for part of construction services
      • Trade Map does not cover Foreign Affiliates Trade in Services Statistics (FATS) for any sector, see FAQ 5.h.


      Mode 4: Movement of natural persons
      A foreign national provides a service within country A as an independent supplier (e.g.: consultant, health worker) or employee of a service supplier (e.g. consultancy firm, hospital, construction company). For more information, see FAQ 5.i.
      Statistical coverage:
      • Trade Map covers Mode 4 through the balance of payments collection for part of computer and information services; other business services; personal, cultural and recreational services; and construction services.
      • Trade Map does not cover labour-related flows.
      • Trade Map does not cover Mode 4 through FATS (information related to foreign employment in foreign affiliates)
      You will find additional information concerning the statistical coverage of Mode 4 in the Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services (MSITS 2002, Annex I; MSITS 2010, Chapter II, E, 4).
      Table – Modes of supply

      Trade in services statistics showed in Trade Map, and recorded in the balance of payments (see FAQ 5.b), capture all or part of the transactions involving these four modes of supply (as long as the resident to non-resident rule is applied, see FAQ 5.a).
      However, it is not possible to allocate these services transactions to a specific mode of supply, because within a single services transaction different Modes are often involved.

      Examples:
      A doctor, providing advice on-line to a foreign patient (Mode 1), may request his client to travel for an appointment with him (Mode 2), or may simply decide to travel there temporarily to treat the patient (Mode 4).

      A lawyer working in a law enterprise travelling abroad, establishes a business link with a client (Mode 4 movement, but initially no economic transaction), which may lead to the future provision of advisory work online to the client (Mode 1), and the attraction of new clients who travel to consult the law enterprise (Mode 2).

      Related links & documents
      WTO visual presentation to modes of supply: www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/cbt_course_e/popup_animation_e.htm

      WTO. Measuring Trade in Services- A training module (Annex V): www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/services_training_module_e.htm

      MSITS 2002 (Chapter II, D, 4): unstats.un.org/unsd/tradeserv/TFSITS/manual.htm

      MSITS 2010 (Chapter V , C, pp. 119-131): unstats.un.org/unsd/tradeserv/TFSITS/msits2010/M86%20rev1-white%20cover.pdf





    • Which other manuals can help me to understand the universe of trade in services statistics?


      The Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services (MSITS):
      This manual aims at building a coherent international framework for the creation of services trade statistics garnered from the BOP (see FAQ 5.b) and other sources (e.g.: Foreign Affilitaes Trade in Services Statistics (FATS), Movement of Natural Persons Statistics, see FAQ 5.h and FAQ 5.i). The manual provides correspondence tables among different international classifications in order to improve the state of services statistics and coordinate the efforts of statisticians and trade negotiators. Aggregations through mode of supply are also suggested in the Manual.
      The MSITS 2002 has been recently succeeded by the MSITS 2010. The new manual refers to the latest updates occurred within the System of National Accounts and the IMF Balance of Payment framework (see FAQ 5.j).

      The System of National Accounts (SNA):
      The SNA is the internationally agreed standard set of recommendations on how to compile measures of economic activity. The SNA describes a coherent, consistent and integrated set of macroeconomic accounts in the context of a set of internationally agreed concepts, definitions, classifications and accounting rules.

      Related links & documents
      MSITS 2002:
      unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/Seriesm/Seriesm_86e.pdf

      MSITS 2010:
      unstats.un.org/unsd/tradeserv/TFSITS/msits2010/M86%20rev1-white%20cover.pdf

      UNSD National Accounts:
      unstats.un.org/unsd/nationalaccount/sna.asp





    • Are there any auxiliary classifications that can help me to interpret trade in services statistics?


      The Central Product Classification (CPC) constitutes a comprehensive classification of all goods and services. Sections from 5 to 9 are mainly related to services. The CPC provide descriptions (explanatory notes) and rules of interpretation for services that are included in each subclass and those that are excluded, for reference purposes. Version 1.0 was used to define more precisely the balance of payments services components recommended in EBOPS 2002. Since EBOPS operates at a higher aggregation than CPC, its categories are typically aggregations of CPC subclasses. Two categories in the balance of payments classification of services, namely, travel and government services n.i.e., do not have analogues in the CPC.
      The International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) is a UN economic classification that categorizes goods and services data according to the specific economic activity involved. For services, a possible reference is the ICFA classification (ISIC Categories for Foreign Affiliates).

      Sectoral grouping according to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS):
      In 1991, the GATT secretariat produced a note setting out a classification of service sectors, known as the GNS/W/120 Services Sectoral Classification list, resulting from consultations with member countries. GNS/W/120 should be considered as a negotiating list rather than a statistical classification.

      Related links & documents
      UN Classification Systems: unstats.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regct.asp

      WTO Services sectoral classification list (and more information): www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/serv_sectors_e.htm





    • Where can I find more information not provided by Trade Map on services supplied through commercial presence (Mode 3)?


      Through the identification of commercial presence as a mode of supply, the GATS have generated a need for information about foreign affiliates operating in the services sector. This data is provided in the balance of payment, and consequently on Trade Map, only for construction services as long as the foreign enterprise providing the services has not resident status in the compiling economy (see FAQ 5.a). In general, services supplied through Mode 3 do not involve transactions between resident and non-resident transactions. Foreign Affiliates Trade in Services Statistics (FATS) represent the only available source for most of Mode 3 statistics but they are provided just by some of the most industrialized countries. The implementation of this statistics is extremely useful to capture the values and extent of trade in services embedded under Mode 3 (and Mode 4 for what concerns the salaries of intra-corporate transferees working in the services sector see FAQ 5.i).

      Related links & documents:
      Eurostat manual on the production of FATS: unstats.un.org/unsd/EconStatKB/Attachment223.aspx

      MSITS 2002 (Chapter IV): unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/Seriesm/Seriesm_86e.pdf

      MSITS 2010 (Chapter IV): unstats.un.org/unsd/tradeserv/TFSITS/msits2010/M86%20rev1-white%20cover.pdf

      Eurostat Data on Foreign controlled Affiliates: epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/european_business/data/database

      OECD Statistics on Activity of Multinationals and FDIs (under the section 'Globalisation'): stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=MIG





    • Where can I find more information not provided by Trade Map on services supplied through the movement of natural persons (Mode 4)?


      Mode 4 statistics refer to the supply of services toward the movement (flow) and presence (stock) of natural persons in an economy, as defined by the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Statistics on the value of services traded under Mode 4 are provided by the Balance of Payment but their separate estimation within given services transactions is extremely challenging, if not unfeasible (see FAQ 5.e). Foreign Affiliates Trade in Services (FATS, see FAQ 5.h) statistics, when available, can provide more information on this mode of supply. Statistics on the number of foreign persons moving (flows) and present (stocks) in a host country are an important complement measure of international transactions related to Mode 4 and they can be gathered from migration and touristic sources.
      Supply of services through presence of natural persons (Mode 4) and labour mobility may be distinguished by the type of contracts underpinning the transactions. While Mode 4 is associated with a service contract between the supplier in one economy and the consumer of another economy, labour mobility is characterized by employment contracts. Consequently, Mode 4 does not concern service providers seeking access to the employment market in the host country, nor permanent migration as the GATS does not apply to measures affecting residence, citizenship or employment on a permanent basis. However, the absence within the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of a precise recommendation regarding the time length for the service supplier to work within the foreign country (e.g.: length of stay can range between three month for service sellers aiming to set up commercial presence abroad up to five years for intra-corporate transferees) stands as a further obstacle for analysis purposes.

      Services suppliers classified under Mode 4 trade are conventionally divided into four subcategories:
      • Business visitors and salespersons (BVs). Their purpose is to facilitate the agreement for future transaction and business opportunities in a foreign country.
      • Intracorporate transferees (ICTs). These are employees of a foreign enterprise that established its commercial presence abroad.
      • Independent professionals (IPs). Self employed individuals that supply a service in a foreign country.
      • Contractual services suppliers (CSSs). Employees of a foreign provider of services that does not have a local presence or commercial presence in the host country.
      Table – types of mode 4 presence

      Related links & documents
      MSITS 2002 (Annex 1): unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/Seriesm/Seriesm_86e.pdf

      MSITS 2010 (Chapter II, E, 4): unstats.un.org/unsd/tradeserv/TFSITS/msits2010/M86%20rev1-white%20cover.pdf

      WTO-More info and literature on the Movement of Natural Persons: www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/mouvement_persons_e/mouvement_persons_e.htm

      UNSD- Technical Subgroup on the Movement of Persons: unstats.un.org/unsd/tradeserv/TFSITS/subgroup.htm





    • What are the differences between the BPM5/EBOPS 2002 and the new BPM6/EBOPS 2010 systems?


      Trade in Services data on Trade Map now follow the framework set by the 6th edition of the Balance of Payment Manual (BPM6) and the Extended Balance of Payment on Services classification released in 2010 (EBOPS 2010).

      The differences between BPM5/EBOPS 2002 and BPM6/EBOPS 2010 concern the enhancement of the "change of ownership" principle. This implies revisions of the concepts of goods for processing and merchanting transations.
      In an attempt to capture the issues involved by globalisation and its statistical implications, the new framework for trade in services statistics implies a stricter application of the "change of ownership" principle enshrined in the System of National Accounts (SNA) and Balance Of Payments (BOP) manuals.
      This will notably emphasise a fundamental difference to how goods undergoing processing abroad are regarded within the International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Concepts and Definitions, Revision 2 (IMTS, Rev. 2) on the one hand, and the BPM/SNA on the other. While the IMTS statistical system is based on the concepts of "physical movements of goods and country of origin", the BPM/SNA is founded on the principles of "change of ownership" and "residence of owners". The criteria of "substantial transformation" (IMTS, Rev. 2, para. 71) acted as a bridge between the two systems.
      Therefore, in the SNA 1993 and the BPM5 a change in ownership was imputed in case of "substantial processing" and the flows were then recorded as goods trade. This allocating rationale however, constituted an exception to the "change of ownership" rule (BPM5, para. 203; SNA 1993, para. 14.55).

      The external merchandise trade statistics record all movements of goods at the time they cross the border of the compiling economies, but not at the time of change of ownership.
      According to the previous statistical device, "goods for processing" are thus included in the merchandise trade statistics, and are recorded at the time they are exported to the processing economy or returned to the original economy for local use or re-export. This implies that a change in ownership is always imputed for "goods for processing" whenever they move into or out of the compiling country, and are recorded on gross terms under the goods account. The new statistical system introduced by the BPM6/SNA 2008 will instead capture these goods for processing that have not undergone a certified change in ownership under the service category Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others.
      It is worthwhile noticing that the value of manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others is not necessarily the same as the difference between the value of goods sent for processing and the value of goods after processing. Cost of overheads (i.e.: intermediate goods, financing, know how) should be taken into account.

      Merchanting activities also represented a controversial issue in respect to the "change of ownership" principle. BPM5 defines "merchanting" as the purchase of goods by a resident (of the compiling economy) from a non-resident and the subsequent resale of the goods to another non-resident without the goods ever entering or leaving the compiling economy (BPM5, para. 262). The difference between the value of goods when acquired and the value when sold is recorded as the value of "merchanting" services provided. BPM5 recommends recording such net amount of transactions under services rather than goods, though the commodity has changed ownership. On the contrary, the BPM 6 allocates those merchanting transactions under the goods account (BPM6, paras. 10.41-10.49).

      Some examples: revision of services trade balance in China and Hong Kong (China)
      The new treatment of goods for processing and merchanting services is deemed to entail important changes in the trade balances of some countries. In the case of China, and Hong-Kong (China), the estimated effect will entail a redistribution of value between goods and services accounts, leaving the current account balance unmodified.

      China
      According to 2007 estimates, the new accounting principle for "good for Processing" will imply a remarkable reduction of the goods trade balance. In contrast, the country turns to be a net exporter of services.
      Assuming that processing services can be measured from the difference between debits and credits of goods for processing, obtained from published country merchandise trade data, the calculation will imply that:
      • Goods credit (BPM6) = Goods credits (BPM5) - Goods for processing credits (BPM5)
      • Goods debit (BPM6) = Goods debit (BPM5) - Goods for processing debit (BPM5)
      • Services credits (BPM6) = Services credit (BPM5) + Net goods for processing (if positive)
      • Services debits (BPM6) = Services debits (BPM5) + Net goods for processing (if negative)

      Effects on China trade performance (US$ billions)
      BOP 2007 BPM5 Adjusted for "goods for processing" Percent change
      Exports of goods 1220 602 -51%
      Imports of goods 905 553 -39%
      Balance of trade in goods 315 49 -
      Exports of services 122 388 218%
      Imports of services 130 130 0%
      Balance of trade in services -8 258 -
      Balance of trade in goods and services 307 307 -
      Source: IMF, BOPCOM-08/11

      Hong Kong (China)
      Over the past years, trading activities relating to "goods for processing" and "merchanting" played a vital role in the external trade front of Hong Kong. In 2006, about 30% of imported goods into Hong Kong, and 17% of goods exported from Hong Kong were related to goods for outward processing in the Mainland, whereas about 26% of exports of services of Hong Kong were related to "merchanting" activities.
      The balance of trade in goods in 2006 would be revised from a deficit of US$ 14 billion to a surplus of US$ 51 billion, and the balance of trade in services from a surplus of US$ 36 billion to a deficit of US$ 29 billion.
      The impact of the new statistical framework, as shown in the following table, will be extremely relevant for trade analysis.

      Effects on Hong Kong trade performance (US$ billions)
      BOP 2006 BPM5 Adjusted for "goods for processing" only Adjusted for "merchanting" only Adjusted for both "goods for processing" and "merchanting" Percent change
      Exports of goods 318 265 336 283 -11%
      Imports of goods 332 233 332 233 -30%
      Balance of trade in goods -14 32 4 51 -
      Exports of services 73 73 54 54 -26%
      Imports of services 37 83 37 83 124%
      Balance of trade in services 36 -10 18 -29 -
      Balance of trade in goods and services 22 22 22 22 -
      Source: IMF, BOPCOM-07/20

      Related links & documents
      IMF (2008). Impact on BOP Data of Changes in International Standards for Processing and Merchanting, BOPCOM-08/11. Available at: www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/bop/2008/08-11.pdf

      IMF (2007). Strategy for Implementing Recommendations on Goods for Processing and Merchanting in BPM6 - The Case for Hong Kong, BOPCOM-07/20. Available at: www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/bop/2007/07-20.pdf





    • Who else provides data and metadata on trade in services?


      International Monetary Fund (IMF)
      General Data Dissemination System The General Data Dissemination System (GDDS) provides recommendations on good practice for the production and dissemination of country statistics. The methodology and the sources used for services and trade in services data for adhering countries can be unveiled through an analysis of the following topics: National Accounts and Balance of Payments: dsbb.imf.org/Pages/GDDS/CountryList.aspx
      Special Data Dissemination Standard

      The Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) was established by the IMF to guide members that have, or that might seek, access to international capital markets in the provision of their economic and financial data to the public. Both the GDDS and the SDDS are expected to enhance the availability of timely and comprehensive statistics and therefore contribute to the pursuit of sound macroeconomic policies; the SDDS is also expected to contribute to the improved functioning of financial markets: dsbb.imf.org/Pages/SDDS/CtgCtyList.aspx?catcode=BOP00&catname=Balance%20of%20payments


      Eurostat
      Balance of Payments – International trade in services: epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/balance_of_payments/data/database


      World Trade Organization (WTO)
      WTO provides summary statistics on Transportation, Telecommunication, Financial and Insurance services: stat.wto.org/ServiceProfile/WSDBServicePFHome.aspx?Language=E

      Metadata on WTO Trade in Services statistics are available at: stat.wto.org/ServiceProfile/WSDBServicePFTechNotes.aspx?Language=E


      United Nation Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
      Data are presented for groups of countries with an increasing level of detail (Trade in services trends) or by sector (Trade in services by category).
      UNCTAD secretariat calculation are based on: IMF (Balance of Payments Statistics, World Economic Outlook), Economist Intelligence Unit (Country Data), OECD (OECD.Stat Extracts), WTO (Statistics Database) and national sources.
      unctadstat.unctad.org/ReportFolders/reportFolders.aspx


      Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
      The types of services are presented according to the services classification of both BPM5/EBOPS 2002 and BPM6/EBOPS 2010 devices (see FAQ 5.j).
      Data is submitted directly to the OECD by the non-EU OECD member countries and is published without any further changes. Data for the European Union (EU) countries are transmitted to the OECD by Eurostat. In some cases, data for EU countries has been adjusted or estimated by Eurostat in order to enable the calculation of EU totals, and these data is supplied to OECD. The work-sharing procedure ensures that data published by both organisations are the same. This feature should better satisfy users' requirements. To the same effect, comparable zone totals for the EU, G7, NAFTA, OECD-Asia and Pacific, OECD-Europe and total OECD are calculated.
      The database is the result of joint work between the OECD and Eurostat.
      The OECD also provides information on the International Development Work and Coordination process that involves Services statistics.
      www.oecd.org/document/11/0,3746,en_2649_34243_22903307_1_1_1_1,00.html


      United Nation Statistic Division (UNSD)
      The UN Service Trade statistics database is an extensive resource for trade in services data and metadata: unstats.un.org/unsd/servicetrade/default.aspx


      Summary of BOP trade in services data dissemination by international organizations
      Table – services BOP data dissemination
      Source: WTO (2010), Measuring trade in services- A training module
      More information are available on the UNSD website: unstats.un.org/unsd/tradeserv/TFSITS/databases.htm





Análisis e Investigación de Mercados, Centro de Comercio Internacional (ITC); Palais des Nations; CH-1211 Genève 10; Suiza
Tel.: +41 (0)22 730 05 40; marketanalysis@intracen.org
Copyright © 1999-2015 Centro de Comercio Internacional. Todos los derechos reservados.